Mars Atmosphere has Earth-like environments
Mars has the same environment as the Earth such as dust storms, deserts, sand dunes, and ice caps. But much of the earth is blanketed by red dust in order that they share a little resemblance.
Ice caps on Mars aren’t made from water. Although they’re similar in appearance such as white at least, ice caps on Mars are composed of CO2 (Carbon dioxide).
Mars is cold but not terribly cold like Antarctica, it ranges from -87° to -5°C. this is often because it’s farther from the sun than Earth.
It’s about 228 million kilometers far away from the sun. That puts Mars at about 1.524 astronomical units.
Mars Seasons are twice as long
Similar to Earth, Mars features a summer, spring, autumn, and winter. this is often because Mars rotates on a tilted axis. Where Earth’s inclination to the equator is about 23.5°, Mars is about 25.1°.
Seasons on Mars generally last twice as long. This is often mainly due to its orbital period (sol) and its eccentric orbit.
For example, one year on Mars is almost twice as long as Earth at 687 days (1.88 Earth years). Its day length is on the brink of an equivalent at 1d 0h 45 min.
Seasons don’t resemble Earth without water. Water can’t freeze to form snow. the snow clouds on Mars contains CO2 (Carbon dioxide).
The towering Mount Olympus
In the solar system of Mars, “Mount Olympus” is the largest volcano. Its height is up to nearly 25 kilometers, which is quite 3 times as tall as Everest.
Whereas “Valles Marineris” may be a system of canyons, some quite 7 kilometers deep. This span of canyons extends from about 2500 miles.
Another main feature is about the “Tharsis Bulge”. This uplifted volcanic plateau is positioned near the Martian equator on the planet.
Evidence of liquid water
Despite Mariner 4 finding no signs of life, the Mars Curiosity Rover landed on Mars in 2011 in search of an identical goal. Its primary objective was to seek out if Mars could have ever supported life.
The Mars Curiosity mission showed far more promise finding signs of liquid water on Mars. for instance, it found evidence of water in sedimentary rocks that formed in ocean-like settings.
In addition, it discovered various sorts of hematite that only form in water. Lastly, Due to water, it found signs of chemical weathering.
Curiosity Mars Rover’s uncanny longevity
There were nearly 39 missions conducted to Mars but only 16 of them made it. Out of the 16, the foremost successful program of NASA was putting two rovers on Mars.
The main objective of the “Opportunity” rover was to characterize rocks, soils, and minerals for clues of water. The aim of the “Curiosity” rover was to research the building blocks for all times.
It was designed to last for 90 Mars days (Sols), But quite 5000 sols later, the Mars Rover remains discovering. Because it got stuck within the Martian craters, it had been ready to maneuver itself out of safety.
Was there ever life on Mars? Possibly. Could we live there? First, we might get to discover a source of water.
And this brings us to NASA’s “InSight” mission. This mission is decided to seek out what’s beneath the dusty red crust.
By drilling a hole deep into the Martian surface, it’ll measure tectonic activity (marsquakes) and temperature flowing within the land of mars planet.
In addition, it could also show signs of underground water reserves, which might indicate an opportunity that life could exist on Mars.
In 1877, an astronomer by the name of Giovanni Schiaparelli used the term “Canali” to explain streaks on the surface of Mars. If you translate “Canali”, it had been meant to mean “channels”.
But people wrongly interpreted the meaning as “canals”. Since then, the overall public believed intelligent life on Mars constructed a system of crisscrossing canals on Mars.
But it had been the Mariner 4 spacecraft which quickly put that theory to rest. Because it flew by Mars in 1964, it found it had no signs of life. it had been actually bone dry, with none water either.
No magnetic Flux/field
Mars has no global magnetic flux. But it’s going to had one in a while. It’s believed that Mars lost its magnetosphere about 4.2 billion years ago.
So now without a magnetic flux, meaning that if you were to bring your compass to Mars it might be completely ineffective and useless.
Because Mars doesn’t have a magnetic flux, solar winds have stripped away much of Mars’s atmosphere into the cold, arid planet Mars is today.
Also without a magnetic flux to shield from the sun’s deadly rays, it leaves the likelihood for life on Mars virtually nonexistent.
But understanding Mars magnetic flux can contribute to understanding if there was indeed a warm and wet climate that could support life on Mars.
An orange-red appearance
If you’ve ever seen Mars from a telescope, the primary thing you’ll notice is its orange-red appearance. Actually, Mars is dusty and crammed with desert sand and rocks. But why is Mars red?
Mars is 4.5B years within the making. When the earth was crammed with water, iron oxide rocks and sand gave it a rusty red color. As dust storms sprinkled the rusty material around the planet, it blanketed the surface in red.
Furthermore, Mars has dust storms that cover the whole planet and last for weeks. These dust storms are so influential that it can change the atmospheric temperature of the planet.
Phobos and Deimos are its moons
If you see the sky from Mars, you can notice the familiar sight like our Earth. There were two moons orbiting the Martian planet.
Unlike Earth which features a single moon, Mars has two moons (Phobos and Deimos). In terms of size, they’re among the littlest moons in our system.
Both moons are named after Greek mythological twin characters. While Phobos means panic/fear, Deimos means terror/dread.
Mars Gravity is about 1/3rd Earth’s gravity
Mars features a thin atmosphere because its gravity is about 1/3rd of Earth. Almost like Venus, Mars’s atmosphere is 95% CO2(Carbon dioxide).
If there have been plants on Mars, they might blossom thereupon much CO2. All they’re missing maybe a source of water and sunlight.
The atmospheric composition of Mars is CO2 (95.0%), Nitrogen (3.0%) and Argon (1.6%).
Rifts and crustal deformation
Mars has bits of evidence of volcanic activity within the past. for instance, on Earth when two plates rub together, it deforms the crust.
This process sculps prominent features like ridges and volcanoes. On Mars, similar features exist like the “Tharsis Bulge”, “Mount Olympus” and shield volcanoes.
However, almost like plume volcanoes, it’s believed that Martian volcanoes melted within the mantle then raised buoyantly through the crust.
Currently, there’s no tectonic activity due to what proportion it cooled down. It’s possible Mars remains volcanically active. But we just haven’t observed any eruptions.
Evidence of Martian volcanism
There’s significant evidence of volcanism on Mars. And if you’ve got that much volcanism, this suggests Mars probably had a thick atmosphere and doubtless an ocean many meters thick.
What makes people think this is often because everywhere on the surface of Mars you see evidence of water – stream beds, riverbeds, and erosion.
For example, the most important volcano within the system is that the Olympus Mons on Mars. This shield volcano towers over 27 kilometers tall.
Based on space imagery like Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA), Mars has shown evidence of leaking on cliff walls and water leaking bent space.
Mars is in the Goldilocks zone
Not only is Mars within the Goldilocks zone, but it’s also one among the 4 terrestrial planets in the solar system. A bit like Mercury, Venus, Earth, they’re all small, dense, and made from similar stuff.
Terrestrial planets tend to be rich in metals and silicate rocks. Mars’ inner core is formed from metallic iron and nickel.
Unlike gas planets, it’s surrounded by less dense, silicate mantle and crust. Finally, its red surface rocks and dust are caused by the oxidation of iron.
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